Radiation Risk Of Airport Full Body Scanners

Thursday, December 31, 2009

Body scanners have revolutionized the practice of medicine since they were first introduced into routine clinical practice in 1974. Companies are coming out with faster scanners that take more comprehensive pictures. A millimeter wave scanner is a whole body imaging device used for airport security screening. It is one of two common technology used for body imaging; the other is the backscatter X-ray. In comparison to x-rays from medical applications, the backscattered x-rays are considered high energy. A "high energy x-ray beam" moves rapidly over the person's form and a high resolution image of the person's nude body. Here is the question, Are They Safe? There are no known “safe” doses of radiation in terms of radiation-induced cancer risk.

CT (computed tomography) scanners is a rotating x-ray device to create hundreds of individual images reconstructed into a three dimensional view of the body by computers. Many readers have heard of these scans. MRI technology also produces fast scans. MRI scanners also provide sharper, clearer images of the body. They help physicians detect cancerous tumors, debilitating diseases and other ailments at earlier stages of development. You may have heard the term ‘3T,’ the “T” in “3T” refers to “tesla” a unit used to measure the magnetic strength of the MRI scanners. Current CT scanners are able to image the entire human body within seconds, and provide high definition images with an incredibly detailed view of organs and tissues. Scanner use low doses of radiation, but many older machines rely on higher doses. Scanners are for particular procedures they are not standardized, and a wide variance in doses can be delivered to the subjects. Security scanners use millimeter waves, these are the scanners used in Airports. As these complex and powerful diagnostic imaging machines continued to grow, so will the potential risk of radiation-induced cancers from radiation exposure administered during body scans at Airport Security.

A number of private radiology imaging centers offer “body scans” for clinically healthy people who are interested in having their internal organs examined for any early signs of diseases. Physicians have become so dependent on these machines that they request a scan for many visits. The same theory has turned to airport security; a full body scan will be requested before boarding a plane, screening the healthy with low dosages of radiation. Medical implants such as cardiac and neural stimulation leads could be affected by the electrical field produced by a pulse generator and significantly alter (either increase or decrease) the waveform of a pacemakers pulse.

Airport Full Body Scanners work by Millimeter wave technology. This band has a wavelength of ten to one millimetre, giving it the name millimeter band or millimetre wave. These waves are considered Extremely High Frequency, the highest radio frequency band. EHF runs the range of frequencies from 30 to 300 gigahertz, they are also sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW. These bands are also known as terahertz radiation. Terahertz radiation may interfere directly with DNA. The force generated is small but the waves disturb double-stranded DNA, creating bubbles in the double strand. These scanners provide exceptionally clear views of subjects by combining data from multiple X-ray images, but the increased exposure to X-rays, which cause mutations in DNA that, can lead to cancer. X-rays are considered ionizing (penetrating) radiation, ionizing radiation in any dose causes genetic mutations, which set all living cells exposed on the path to cancer. Cancers associated with high dose exposure include leukemia, breast, bladder, colon, liver, lung, esophagus, ovarian, multiple myeloma, prostate, nasal cavity/sinuses, pharyngeal, laryngeal, pancreatic and stomach cancers. Clothing and organic materials are translucent in most mm-wave bands. Perfect for detecting objects on subjects at airports. The scanner does allow the screener to see detailed images of body parts, as I explained with CT and MRI scanners.

Whole body scans of healthy people may be creating more problems than they solve by exposing healthy people to radiation. The risk for radiation over exposure may be small for single subject, but the number subject exposed to airport body scans will increase they risk by the millions. A normal CT scan of the chest is the equivalent of about 100 chest X-rays. Some scanners are equivalent of 440 conventional X-rays. The traditional X-ray machine detects hard and soft materials by the variation in transmission through the target. The backscatter X-ray detects the radiation that reflects back from the target. Several studies have suggested that people have been unnecessarily exposed to radiation from CTs or have received excessive amounts of radiation. A person undergoing a backscatter scan receives approximately 0.005 – 0.009 millirems of radiation. 1 mrem per year is a negligible dose of radiation, and 25 mrem per year from a single source is the upper limit of safe radiation exposure. Widespread overuse of body scanners and variations in radiation caused by different machines could subject many to radiation doses that could ultimately lead to thousands of new cancer cases and deaths.

It’s Gonna Be BEDLAM!

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Medication Mistakes That Can Kill

Saturday, December 5, 2009

Confusing two medications with similar names: Confusion caused by similar drug names accounts for up to 25 percent of all reported errors. The doctor's handwriting is illegible, or the name goes into the pharmacy computer incorrectly, or the swap occurs when the wrong drug is pulled from the shelves. Most pharmacies shelve drugs in alphabetical order, so you have drugs with similar names right next to each other. It’s easy to grab the wrong medication. Solution: When you get a new prescription, ask your doctor to write down what it's for as well as the name and dosage. When you're picking up a prescription at the pharmacy, check the label to make sure the name of the drug (brand or generic), dosage, and directions for use are the same as those on the prescription.

Taking two or more drugs that magnify each other's potential side effects: Drugs can interfere with each other, they can magnify each other, or one drug can magnify a side effect caused by another drug. Any drug you take has potential side effects. But the problems ca
n really add up whenever you take two or more medications at the same time. The most common and most dangerous of these magnification interactions involve blood pressure and dizziness. If you're taking one medication that has a potential side effect of raising blood pressure, and you then begin taking a second medication with the same possible effect, your blood pressure could spike dangerously from the combination of the two. The same applies with medication with dizziness side effects. Be careful if you've been prescribed the blood-thinner Coumadin (warfarin). Too much or too little Coumadin could lead to serious heart problems such as arrhythmias or a stroke. Solution: Ask your doctor or a pharmacist about potential side effects when you get a new prescription, and make sure the pharmacy gives you written printouts about the medication to review later.

Overdosing by combining more t
han one medication with similar properties: You might have one medication prescribed to treat pain, another prescribed for anxiety, and another that's given as a sleeping pill, they're all sedatives, and the combined effect is toxic. The risk for this kind of overdose is highest with drugs that function by depressing the central nervous system. These include narcotic painkillers such as codeine; benzodiazepines such as Ativan, Halcion, Xanax, and Valium; barbiturate tranquilizers such as Seconal; some of the newer drugs such as BuSpar, for anxiety; and the popular sleeping pill Ambien. Oversedation can also happen with innocent over-the-counter drugs like antihistamines (diphenhydramine, commonly known as Benadryl, cough and cold medicines, and OTC sleeping pills. This type of drug mixing is responsible for many medication-induced deaths, especially among younger adults. Solution: Pay attention to the warnings on the packaging of over-the-counter medications, and the risks listed in the documentation for prescriptions. Key words are sleepy, drowsy, dizzy, sedation, and their equivalents. If more than one of your prescriptions or OTC drugs warns against taking it while driving, or warns that it can make you drowsy, beware.

Getting the Dosage wrong: Drugs are prescribed in a variety of units of measure, units that are usually notated using abbreviations or symbols. A misplaced decimal point and 1.0 mg becomes 10 mg, a tenfold dosing error that could cause a fatal overdose. Some of the most extreme dosage mistakes occur when someone mistakes a dose in milligrams with one in micrograms, resulting in a dose 1,000 times higher. Insulin causes some of the worst medication errors because it's measured in units, abbreviated with a U, which can look like a zero or a 4. Another common problem is getting the frequency wrong, a drug that is supposed to be given once a day is given four times a day. Solution: Make sure your doctor's writing is clear on the original prescription, if you can't read the dosage indicated, chances are the nurse and pharmacist cannot as well. Ask the pharmacist to check the dosage to make sure it's within the range that's typical for that medication. In the hospital, question your nurse about a new medications, and dosages. Don't be afraid to speak up if you think you're about to get the wrong medicine or the wrong dose.

Mixing alcohol with medications: There
are plenty of drugs that come with that bright orange warning sticker attached, telling you not to drink when taking them. The sticker can fall off, or not get attached in the first place, or you might just really need a drink. Alcohol, combined with a long list of painkillers, sedatives, and other medications, becomes a deadly poison in these situations. Alcohol can also have a dangerous interaction with OTC drugs such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and cough and cold medicines. If the cough or cold medicines themselves contain alcohol, you can end up with alcohol poisoning. Mix alcohol and certain antidepressants and you have the potential for a dangerous rise in blood pressure, alcohol and certain sedatives such as Ativan or Valium can depress the heart rate enough to put you in a coma. Solution: When you get a new prescription, ask your doctor or a pharmacist if the medication is safe to take while drinking alcohol. If you're a heavy drinker and you know it's likely you'll drink while taking the medication, tell your doctor. She may need to prescribe something else instead. Read the labels of all OTC medications carefully, both to see if alcohol is mentioned as a risk and also to see if alcohol is an ingredient in the medication itself.

Double-dosing by taking a brand-name drug and the generic version at the same time: It’s common for you to get confused and end up with bottles of a brand-name drug and a generic version at the same time without realizing it. A common diuretic is furosemide. The brand name is Lasix. A patient might have a bottle of furosemide and a bottle of Lasix and not know they're the same thing. Generic drugs don't list the equivalent brand name on the label, you might not spot this unless your brand-name version lists the generic name in the fine print. Solution: When your doctor prescribes a new medication, make sure you have a chance to go over all the details you might need to know later. Have the doctor write down the name of the drug (brand and generic, if available), what it's for, its dosage, and how often and when to take it.

Taking prescription drugs and over-the-counter or alternative medications without knowing how they interact: Don’t think that medican from your local grocery or drug store are safe. Some of the most common OTC drugs can cause serious reactions. The new and very popular version of Maalox Total Relief, contains an ingredient called bismuth subsalicylate that can react dangerously with anticlotting drugs, drugs for hypoglycemia, and anti-inflammatories, particularly ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, or NSAIDs. Aspirin, thins the blood. The herb Saint-John's-wort, which many people take for depression, can interfere with prescription antidepressants and it also interferes with the liver's processing of blood thinners such as Coumadin (warfarin) and heart medications such as Digoxin. Solution: Let your doctor know about any OTC meds or supplements you take when they write your prescription.


Not understanding interactions between medications and your diet: Grapefruit juice inhibits a crucial enzyme that normally functions to break down and metabolize many drugs, such as antiseizure drugs and statins used to lower cholesterol. The liver can't metabolize the medication, resulting in an overdose, with potentially fatal consequences. Coffee inhibits absorption. Coffee drinkers who take their iron in the morning may not see any results because the iron wasn’t absorbed. Solution: When you get a new prescription, ask your doctor or a pharmacist whether you should take it with food, without food, and if there are any particular dietary issues to watch out for.


Failing to adjust medication dosages when a patient loses kidney or liver function: Loss of liver or kidney function impairs your body's ability to rid itself of toxins, or foreign substances, so medications can build up in the body at higher dosages than intended. Decreasing medication dosages when patients begin to suffer impaired kidney or liver function is a common mistake doctors make. Doctors shouldn't prescribe any medications without first ordering liver and kidney function tests. Solution: With new prescriptions, read the fine print to see if liver or kidney function is mentioned. If so, ask your doctor if you've had recent liver and kidney function screenings.

Taking a medication that's not safe for your age: As we age, our bodies process medications differently. Aging brings an increased risk of many problems such as dementia, dizziness, falling, and high blood pressure, so drugs that can cause these side effects are much riskier for people over the age of 65. The "Beers List," is a great resource if you or someone you're caring for is over 65. Solution: Take the Beers List to your doctor and check it against all medications prescribed. If you discover that you or a family member over 65 is taking medications that are considered risky, you may need to be proactive and ask the doctor to find alternatives.

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Would You Do It?

Everybody is talking about Tiger Woods and the 'claimed' affairs he's facing. Forget all that, "he shouldn't have, she is a @#$%@#." MEN look at these women and be honest, Married or not, Would you Double EAGLE these babes if they came onto you? BLACK MEN---->DON'T LIE

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Bedlam Don't Shop In Malls

Saturday, November 28, 2009

Going Shopping In A Mall This Year? Bedlam Shop Online.

Reason 1 Bedlam don't go Christmas Shopping in Malls


Reason 2 Bedlam don't go Christmas Shopping in Malls



Reason 3 Bedlam don't go Christmas Shopping in Malls



Reason 4 Bedlam don't go Christmas Shopping in Malls


Safe Shopping, It's Gonna Be BEDLAM!

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Sand Flies, Disease of Destruction

Monday, November 23, 2009

Leishmaniasis is one of the top neglected diseases soldiers have been diagnosed with since deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Found in 88 countries worldwide, treatment is expensive and the availability of therapies is often scarce. A major outbreak in 2003 left deep ulcers caused by the parasites known as the "baghdad boil" among troops. Leishmaniasis is caused by a parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bites of sand flies. They infect white blood cells that normally would defend the body from such invaders. There are two forms of leishmaniasis. The more serious, called kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis (black fever), affects the internal organs, causing fever, anemia, splenomegaly, and discoloration of the skin. Untreated, it can be fatal. The second, or cutaneous leishmaniasis, leaves deep, disfiguring sores at the site of the bite. The sand flies that spread the parasites are carried by animals including dogs and a species of gerbil, as well as people. The insects often breed on waste land and in rubbish.

People with cutaneous leishmaniasis have one or more sores on their skin. The sores can change in size and appearance over time. They may end up with a raised edge and central crater (ulcer). The sores can be painless or painful. Some people have swollen glands near the sores. People with visceral leishmaniasis usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen and liver. They may have abnormal blood tests, low blood counts, including a low red blood cell count (anemia), low white blood cell count, and low platelet count. The complete 5284-nucleotide sequence of the double-stranded RNA genome of leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) contains three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus (+) (mRNA) strand. Similar to the RNA binding properties of synthetic and recombinant HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) and fragments observed in the 5'-HIV-1 RNA. ORFs may encode the major viral coat protein, overlapping ORF-3 by 71 nucleotides. The HIV viral genome mutates at a high rate. As the worldwide rate of HIV infection increases, the need for a leishmaniasis vaccine needs to becomes more urgent. In an IFA test, HIV antigen is mixed with a fluorescent compound and then with a sample of the patient's blood, testing were positive for Leishmania. Leishmaniasis accelerates the onset and worsens the course for people infected with HIV. Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases, each distinctly manifested and all with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment of leishmaniasis requires the administration of toxic and poorly tolerated drugs.

In October 2002, well prior to the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, the US Defense Intelligence Agency's Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC) warned that leishmaniasis would be a danger for troops. Insect repellant and bed nets were frequently in short supply, and commanders failed to emphasize the risk of Leishmaniasis. Almost all of the people in the United States who have leishmaniasis became infected while traveling or living in other countries. Over 90 percent of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis occur in parts of Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Brazil and Peru. Over 90 percent of the cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur in parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil. The World Health Organization estimates that 12 million people worldwide are infected with leishmaniasis. The WHO says that the public health impact of this disease has been grossly underestimated. During the past 10 years, endemic areas have been spreading, with 350 million people thought to be at risk of infection. Antiparasitic pentavalent antimonials, such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate, are the mainstays of therapy.

Sodium stibogluconate was the only recommended treatment in the United States and was available only through the CDC, but amphotericin B in its liposomal form has recently been approved and is now considered to be the drug of choice for visceral leishmaniasis because of its shorter course and lower toxicity. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis differs according to the etiology and geographic location of the infection. For certain types where the potential for mucosal spread is low, topical paromycin can be used. For more invasive lesions sodium stibogluconate, meglumine antimonate, or pentamidine can be used. Amphotericin B deoxycholate may be first-line therapy for advanced mucosal disease. Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment with a pentavalent antimonial compound usually is effective, outside of India. Transfusions may be necessary for severe bleeding or anemia. Antibiotics are indicated to treat intercurrent infectious conditions. A major advance has been the advent of liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, in which various alternative lipids have replaced deoxycholate. These formulations, which passively target amphotericin to macrophage-rich organs, are much more costly than conventional amphotericin B. Miltefosine, a chemotherapeutic agent, is the first extremely effective oral agent for visceral leishmaniasis.

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Give The Man His Noodles!

Friday, October 23, 2009



It's Gonna BE BEDLAM!

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President Obama Wins The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize

Friday, October 9, 2009

President Barack Obama won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples. Speculation had focused on Zimbabwe's Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai, a Colombian senator and a Chinese dissident, along with an Afghan woman's rights activist.


In his 1895 will, Alfred Nobel stipulated that the peace prize should go to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations and the abolition or reduction of standing armies and the formation and spreading of peace congresses. Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. He owned Bofors, a major armaments manufacturer, which he had redirected from its previous role as an iron and steel mill. The synthetic element nobelium was named after him. Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent inert substance like kieselguhr it became safer and more convenient to handle, and this mixture he patented in 1867 as 'dynamite'. Nobel demonstrated his explosive for the first time that year, at a quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England.


Nominations for the Prize may be made by a broad array of qualified individuals, including former recipients, members of national assemblies and congresses, university professors, international judges, and special advisors to the Prize Committee. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received. The Committee keeps the nominations secret and asks that nominators do the same. It is not immediately apparent who nominated Obama.

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Serena Williams and Kanye West Go Crazy

Monday, September 14, 2009


Serena Williams on the tennis courts.



Kanye West at the MTV Awards.

What's wrong with these two, I'll tell you.....B.E.D.L.A.M.

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Get Off The Phone And Drive!

Sunday, September 13, 2009

This makes me sick. Sick, Sick, SICK. The driver that’s too busy talking or texting on a cell phone that he/she cannot has lost their attention driving. You see these drivers every day. They weave in and out of lines, run lights, ride your tail, HAVE ACCIDENTS.

That’s right, they’re so busy yacking they hit something. Cell phones have become an essential feature of modern life. In June 2004, about 170 million Americans had a cell phone, an increase of more than 20 million from 2003. About two out of every three drivers now have a cell phone. Cell phone talking/texting is the number 1 driver distraction. Drivers who don’t pay attention or are distracted are three times as likely to be involved in a crash as drivers who pay attention to the road and talk/text on a phone.

Almost 80 percent of crashes and 65 percent of near misses occur within three seconds of some form of driver distraction. The number of crashes and near-crashes attributable to dialing is nearly identical to the number associated with talking or listening, dialing is more dangerous but occurs less often than talking or listening. The effect of phone use upon the perceptual responses of drivers is likely to constitute a greater threat to safety than its interference with vehicle control. Perceptual processes play a far greater role in automobile accidents than does vehicle control. "Improper lookout" and "inattention" are the two leading contributors to automobile accidents.

Those who talk on a cell phone while driving are four times as likely to get in a car accident as those who do not talk on the phone while driving. Some states or local jurisdictions expressly prohibit novice drivers from talking on a cell phone while driving. Novice drivers are those with learner’s permits and restricted driving privileges. In states like Alaska, California, Connecticut, Louisiana, Minnesota, and New Jersey texting while driving is against the law. The District of Columbia, New Jersey, New York, prohibit handheld cell phone use while driving. Several States prohibit all cell phone use by drivers under the age of 18 or 21, drivers with a GDL, and school bus dr
ivers.

A jurisdiction-wide ban on driving while talking on a hand-held cellphone is in place in 7 states (California, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Utah, and Washington) and the District of Columbia. Utah has named the offense careless driving. Under the Utah law, no one commits an offense when speaking on a cellphone unless they are also committing some other moving violation other than speeding. The law in 5 states Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, and Pennsylvania specifically authorizes a locality to ban cellphone use. Localities that have enacted restrictions on cellphone use include: Chicago, IL; Brookline, MA; Detroit, MI; Santa Fe, NM; Brooklyn, North Olmstead, and Walton Hills, OH; Conshohocken, Lebanon, and West Conshohocken, PA; Waupaca County, WI; and Oahu, HI. Localities are prohibited from banning cellphone use in 8 states (Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Utah). Text messaging is banned for all drivers in 18 states and the District of Columbia. In addition, novice drivers are banned from texting in 9 states (Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Texas, and West Virginia) and school bus drivers are banned from text messaging in 1 state (Texas).


Laws restricting cellphone use and texting

State

Hand-held ban

Young drivers all cellphone ban

Bus drivers all cellphone ban

Texting ban

Enforcement

Alabama

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Alaska

no

no

no

all drivers

primary

Arizona

no

no

school bus drivers

no

primary

Arkansas

drivers ages 18 through 20 (effective 10/01/09)

drivers younger than 18 (effective 10/01/09)

school bus drivers

all drivers (effective 10/01/09)

primary: texting by all drivers and cellphone use by school bus drivers; secondary: cellphone use by young drivers (effective 10/01/09)

California

all drivers

drivers younger than 18

school and transit bus drivers

all drivers

primary1

Colorado

no

drivers younger than 18 (effective 12/01/09)

no

all drivers (effective 12/01/09)

primary (effective 12/01/09)

Connecticut

all drivers

drivers younger than 18

school bus drivers

all drivers

primary

Delaware

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

school bus drivers

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

primary

District of Columbia

all drivers

learner's permit holders

school bus drivers

all drivers

primary

Florida

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Georgia

no

no

school bus drivers

no

primary

Hawaii

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Idaho

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Illinois

drivers in construction and school speed zones (effective 01/01/10)

drivers younger than 19 and learner's permit holders younger than 19

school bus drivers

all drivers (effective 01/01/10)

primary

Indiana

no

drivers younger than 18

no

drivers younger than 18

primary

Iowa

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Kansas

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders (effective 01/01/10)

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders (effective 01/01/10)

primary (effective 01/01/10)

Kentucky

no

no

school bus drivers

no

primary

Louisiana

with respect to novice drivers, see footnote2

with respect to novice drivers, see footnote2

school bus drivers

all drivers

secondary; primary for school bus drivers

Maine

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

primary

Maryland

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

no

all drivers (effective 10/01/09)

secondary; primary for texting

Massachusetts

local option

no

school bus drivers

no

primary

Michigan

local option

no

no

no

not applicable

Minnesota

no

learner's permit holders and provisional license holders during the first 12 months after licensing

school bus drivers

all drivers

primary

Mississippi

no

no

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

primary

Missouri

no

no

no

drivers 21 and younger

primary

Montana

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Nebraska

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders younger than 18

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders younger than 18

secondary

Nevada

no

no

no

no

not applicable

New Hampshire

no

no

no

all drivers (effective 01/01/10)

primary (effective 01/01/10)

New Jersey

all drivers

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

school bus drivers

all drivers

primary

New Mexico

local option

no

no

no

not applicable

New York

all drivers

no

no

all drivers (effective 11/01/09)

secondary (effective 11/01/09)

North Carolina

no

drivers younger than 18

school bus drivers

all drivers (effective 12/01/09)

primary

North Dakota

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Ohio

local option

no

no

no

not applicable

Oklahoma

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Oregon

all drivers (effective 01/01/10)

drivers younger than 18 (effective 01/01/10)

no

all drivers (effective 01/01/10)

primary (effective 01/01/10)

Pennsylvania

local option

no

no

no

not applicable

Rhode Island

no

drivers younger than 18

school bus drivers

no

primary

South Carolina

no

no

no

no

not applicable

South Dakota

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Tennessee

no

learner's permit and intermediate license holders

school bus drivers

all drivers

primary

Texas

drivers in school crossing zones

intermediate license holders for the first twelve months

bus drivers when a passenger 17 and younger is present

bus drivers when a passenger 17 and younger is present; intermediate license holders for first twelve months; drivers in school crossing zones

primary

Utah

all drivers

no

no

all drivers

primary for texting; secondary for talking on a hand-held cellphone3

Vermont

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Virginia

no

drivers younger than 18

school bus drivers

all drivers

secondary; primary for school bus drivers

Washington

all drivers

no

no

all drivers

secondary

West Virginia

no

drivers younger than 18 who hold either a learner's permit or an intermediate license

no

drivers younger than 18 who hold either a learner's permit or an intermediate license

primary

Wisconsin

no

no

no

no

not applicable

Wyoming

no

no

no

no

not applicable



Bottom Line, stay off the phone and pay attention or,

IT’S GONNA BE BEDLAM!

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Bubonic Plague Released

Friday, June 19, 2009

Thirteen cases of Bubonic Plague have been recorded in Libya. Bubonic Plague is primarily a disease of rodents and their fleas, which can infect humans. It is transmitted between rodents by rodent fleas, and can be transmitted to people when infected rodent fleas bite them. It is a very severe disease in people, with case fatality rates of 50-60 percent if left untreated. A search for BPWMD vials have been in operation for over 12 years. Rumors of the Bubonic Plague being sent to Libya has been circulation for years.

A prime objective to create a weapon that could destroy millions has always been under the radar. Some bio-weapon teams has mastered the bicistronic operon yadBC (YPO1387 and YPO1388 of Y. pestis CO92; y2786 and y2785 of Y. pestis KIM5) in the Yersinia pestis strains. Adhesins of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica have been successful. In the 1970s and 1980 Libya had similiar cases of Y. pestis. Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague, fatal in humans. Y. pestis can rapidly disseminate from a infection site into the lymphatic system and regional lymph nodes. The swelling of these infected lymph nodes into characteristic buboes is the classical symptom of bubonic plague. This disease can lead to colonization of a variety of tissues. Y. pestis becomes highly transmissible during coughing, and the bacteria can be easily inhaled, causing a primary pneumonic infection in a new host. Both systemic and pneumonic plague produces high mortality rates because of rapid proliferation of bacteria and quick onset of disease pathology.

This outbreak has prompted the Libyan government to call for an investigation of the cases by the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO will investigate deaths, not the Oca (oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins) or Vc family of proteins used as a subset of autotransporters. The putative promoter region of the Y. pestis yadBC operon can be amplified with primers P1 and P2 from SpeI-digested genomic DNA and cloned into KpnI/Acc65I-digested pBSlacZMCS to create a yadBC promoter-lacZ fusion giving you a pBS-PyadBC-lacZ, change that to the E. coli host S17-1, then conjugated into Y. pestis CO92.S1 to obtain strain CO92.S10 or into Y. pestis CO99-3015.S1 to obtain strain CO99-3015.S4.

This is a highly virulent pathogen because of its ability to escape the host immune system and rapidly proliferate within host tissues. It goes under the radar, E. coli pops up from the GST-YadB and GST-YadC antigens. WHO has to focus on putative structural analogs of YadA to find their lethality in this bubonic plague strains. It’s too difficult detecting YadB and YadC protein levels. Clone 4,146-bp fragments to Sall- and Sacl-digested pLD55, to create pLD55yadBD-L. Electroporate into Y. pestis CO92.S8 you should get a etracycline-sensitive isolation that contains both yadB and yadC. You can get YadBEcoRISD-52 and YadBPstl-32 and primers YadCEcoRI-52 and YadCHindlll-3. If done right you have a role in invasion, which is important for efficient trafficking to or colonization of lymphoid tissues in organs on infected sites.

Its Gonna Be BEDLAM!

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FLU, A Weapon Of Mass Destruction

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Influenza pandemics can claim million lives worldwide, Asiatic/Russian Flu claiming 1 million in 1889–90, Spanish Flu claiming 40 million in 1918–20, Asian Flu claiming 1.5 million 1957–58, Hong Kong Flu claiming 1 million in 1968–69 making influenza the perfect bitterer agent. Seasonal flu kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people globally in an average year.

For years we searched for Weapons Of Mass Destruction thinking it was huge canisters of urania-yellowcake, anthrax, chemical gases, when in fact it small, it’s viruses. Once released, the virus would not discriminate between friend or foe. Biological Warfare is nothing new, it’s been used for years AIDS, SARS, Ebola, and West Nile Virus. With new DNA technology, researchers can construct viruses and bacteria that can jump the species barrier, bred to spread. Flu viruses mutate constantly, which is why the flu vaccine is changed every year, and they can also swap DNA in a process called reassortment.

Biotechnical breakthrough has deciphered a way of reconstructing the chloroplast signal peptide, hydrophobic region, coil motif and TPR region with a basic helix-loop-helix to prevent protein biosynthesis on the outer surface controlling the glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GLU-TR) by heme implicated in protein–protein interaction. The FLU protein operates independently of heme making conventional vaccines useless. This reverse genetic engineered strain is highly transmissible and transmits well from person to person. This DNA becomes part of the cell, giving it the blueprint it needs to build. Scientists create DNA vaccines by into a circular loop called a plasmid. DNA injected into muscle cells reproduce the viral coat protein and trigger immunization reverse that and you have a weapon. Manmade strains of influenza capable of triggering a human flu pandemic is called "passaging" and involves the repeated cycling of strains of a virus through cell culture.

Pathologist has genetically reconstructed the 1918 Spanish influenza strain (H1N1), one of most deadliest viruses known to humankind. Nine fragments of Spanish flu viral RNA were revealed. Four of the eight viral RNA segments has been completely sequenced including the genes for hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). H1N1 killed an estimated 20-40 million people worldwide. The virus is an influenza A, H1N1 and contains DNA typical to avian, swine and human viruses, this molecular techniques could be used for the purpose of bioterrorism and when it acquires the ability to pass from person to person, it can spark a pandemic.

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